L-Tryptophan: 500 mg
In the body, tryptophan is converted into 5-hydroxytryptophan, which then can be converted into serotonin. The body cannot naturally produce this amino acid; therefore, it must be a part of the diet or ingested through supplementation. Tryptophan is a component of many animal and plant proteins. Food sources of tryptophan are dairy products, beef, poultry, barley, brown rice, fish, soybeans and peanuts.*
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid): 604 mg
Vitamin C is found in peppers (sweet, green, red, hot red and green chili), citrus fruits and brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, collards, mustard greens, broccoli, spinach, guava, kiwi fruit, currants and strawberries. Nuts and grains contain small amounts of vitamin C. It is important to note that cooking destroys vitamin C activity.
Vitamin C is integral in supporting a healthy immune system, promoting cardiovascular health, helping to maintain healthy cholesterol levels and providing an antioxidant defense. The body does not manufacture vitamin C on its own, nor does it store it. Therefore, vitamin C must be acquired through diet and supplementation.*
Potassium (Biocarbonate): 384 mg
Potassium is an electrolyte stored in the muscles. Foods rich in potassium include bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, avocado, raw spinach, cabbage and celery. Potassium is an essential macromineral that helps maintain fluid balance in the body. It also supports a wide variety of biochemical and physiological processes. Among other things, potassium supports the normal transmission of nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, synthesis of nucleic acids, maintenance of intracellular tonicity and maintenance of normal blood pressure. In 1928, it was first suggested that high potassium intake could help maintain cardiovascular health. Potassium supports normal muscle relaxation and insulin release. It also promotes glycogen and protein synthesis. Potassium is an electrolyte that promotes normal heartbeat. Potassium supports the body’s ability to regulate water balance, recover from exercise and eliminate wastes.*
Calcium (Lactate, Carbonate, Sulfate, Citrate): 375 mg
The highest concentration of calcium is found in milk. Other foods rich in calcium include vegetables such as collard greens, Chinese cabbage, mustard greens, broccoli, bok choy and tofu. Calcium is an essential mineral with a wide range of biological roles. Calcium exists in bone primarily in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2).
Hydroxyapatite accounts for approximately 40 percent of bone weight. The skeleton has a structural requisite and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Apart from being a major component of bones and teeth, calcium supports normal muscle contraction, nerve health, heart rhythms, blood coagulation, glandular secretion, energy production and immune system function.*
Sufficient daily calcium intake is necessary for maintaining optimal bone density, healthy bones and teeth and has been shown to ease the discomfort of PMS in women. When the body does not get enough calcium per day, it draws calcium from your bones.
The amount of calcium in the blood is regulated by PTH (parathyroid hormone). High levels of calcium in the body correlate with normal cardiovascular health and maintaining normal cholesterol levels. In the American Dietetic Association Journal, a study revealed that calcium helped middle-aged women to maintain healthy weight levels.*
Magnesium (Carbonate, Citrate, Glycinate, Oxide): 300 mg
Magnesium is a component of the mineralized part of bone and supports the normal metabolism of potassium and calcium in adults. It helps maintain normal levels of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, adrenaline and insulin. It also promotes the normal mobilization of calcium, transporting it inside the cell for further utilization. It plays a key role in supporting the normal functioning of muscle and nervous tissue. Magnesium promotes the normal synthesis of all proteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, lipids and carbohydrates.
Magnesium works together with calcium to help maintain the normal regulation of the heart and blood pressure. Importantly, magnesium also supports the body’s ability to build healthy bones and teeth, and promotes proper muscle development. It works together with calcium and vitamin D to help keep bones strong. Magnesium also promotes cardiovascular health by supporting normal platelet activity and helping to maintain normal cholesterol levels.*
Niacin (as Niacinamide): 20 mg NE
Niacin plays an essential role as a coenzyme (NAPH/ NADPH) for about 200 enzymes which promote normal tissue respiration, synthesis of fatty acids and steroid hormones, the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, and the transport of hydrogen. When niacin levels are low, the body can use L-tryptophan to manufacture the vitamin. To produce 1 mg of niacin, the body must use 60 mg of L-tryptophan, a process which can rapidly deplete L-tryptophan levels. When niacin levels are sufficient, L-tryptophan can be used for other needs such as retaining healthy levels of serotonin.*
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine HCl): 4 mg
Vitamin B6 promotes the normal conduction of nerve impulses, regulation of steroid hormones, catabolism of glycogen for glucose, heme synthesis, and the synthesis/metabolism of amino acids and neurotransmitters. After conversion to pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), vitamin B6 acts as a cofactor for many enzymatic reactions involving L-tryptophan, including L-tryptophan’s conversion to serotonin.*
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2): 2.9 mg
Vitamin B2 is found in liver, dairy products, dark green vegetables and some types of seafood. It serves as a coenzyme, working with other B vitamins. It promotes healthy red blood cell formation, supports the nervous system, respiration, antibody production and normal human growth. It supports healthy skin, nails, hair growth and promotes normal thyroid activity (a healthy thyroid is essential in maintaining a healthy weight, among other things). Vitamin B2 supports the body's ability to turn food into energy as a part of the electron transport chain, driving cellular energy on the micro-level. Riboflavin can be useful for pregnant or lactating women, as well as athletes due to their higher caloric needs. Vitamin B2 also promotes the normal breakdown of fats. Vitamin B2 is water-soluble and cannot be stored by the body except in insignificant amounts. It must be replenished daily.*
Manganese (Sulfate): .5 mg
Manganese is a mineral found in large quantities in both plant and animal matter. The most valuable dietary sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables and teas. Manganese is concentrated in the bran of grains, which is often removed during processing.
Only trace amounts of this element can be found in human tissue. Manganese is predominantly stored in the bones, liver, kidney and pancreas. It supports the normal formation of connective tissue, bones, blood-clotting factors and sex hormones. It supports normal fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption and blood sugar regulation. Manganese also promotes normal brain and nerve function.
Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Antioxidants scavenge free radicals that occur naturally in the body but can possibly contribute to the aging process. Antioxidants such as MnSOD can neutralize free radicals.
Some experts estimate that as many as 37 percent of Americans do not get the recommended daily amounts of manganese in their diet. This may be due to the fact that whole grains are a major source of dietary manganese, and many Americans consume refined grains more often than whole grains. Refined grains provide half the amount of manganese as whole grains.*
Boron (Citrate): .5 mg
Boron is a mineral found at high levels in plant foods such as dried fruits, nuts, dark green, leafy vegetables, applesauce, grape juice and cooked dried beans and peas. Boron is found in most tissues, but mainly in the bone, spleen and thyroid. Boron supports normal bone and hormone metabolism. Boron supports the body’s ability to build and maintain healthy bones. It also helps retain adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium to promote proper bone mineralization. Boron is an essential cofactor for the converting vitamin D to its active form. It helps maintain healthy cell membranes, supports proper mental functioning and alertness, and supports normal serum estrogen levels and ionized calcium.*
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol): 12.5 mcg (500 IU)
Regular sunlight exposure is the main way that most humans get their vitamin D. Food sources of vitamin D include vitamin D-fortified milk (100 IU per cup), cod liver oil and fatty fish such as salmon, and small amounts are found in egg yolks and liver.
Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and supports the production of several proteins involved in calcium absorption and storage. Vitamin D works with calcium to promote strong, hard bones. It supports normal transport of calcium out of the osteoblasts into the extra-cellular fluid and in the kidneys. It also promotes normal calcium and phosphate re-uptake through the renal tubules and intestinal epithelium. It supports normal skin cell growth and helps maintain normal production of insulin by the pancreas.*
Vitamin A (1% as Beta Carotene): 362 mcg RAE
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Sources of vitamin A include organ meats (such as liver and kidney), egg yolks, butter, carrot juice, squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, peaches, fortified dairy products and cod liver oil. Vitamin A is also part of a family of compounds, including retinol, retinal and beta-carotene. All the body’s tissues use Vitamin A for normal growth and repair.*