Scientific Support for TLS® Tonalin® CLA (Conjugated Linoleic Acid)
Aminot-Gilchrist, D. and Anderson, H. Insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular disease: potential benefits of conjugated linoleic acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79(suppl 6): 1159S-1163S, 2004. Anderson, R. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutrition Reviews. 56(9): 266-270, 1998. Bhattacharya, A., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid and chromium lower body weight and visceral fat mass in high-fat-diet-fed mice. Lipids. 41(5): 437-444, 2006. Bhattacharya, A., et al. The combination of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and treadmill exercise lowers gain in body fat mass and enhances lean body mass in high fat-fed male Balb/C mice. Journal of Nutrition. 135(5): 1124-1130, 2005. Blankson, H., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans. Journal of Nutrition. 130(12): 2943-2948, 2000. Brown, J., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid induces human adipocyte delipidation: autocrine/paracrine regulation of MEK/ERK signaling by adipocytokines. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279(25): 26735-26747, 2004. Colakoglu, S., et al. Cumulative effects of conjugated linoleic acid and exercise on endurance development, body composition, serum leptin and insulin levels. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. 46(4): 570-577, 2006. DeLany, J., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid rapidly reduces body fat content in mice without affecting energy intake. American Journal of Physiology. 276(4 pt 2): R1172-R1179, 1999. Gaullier, J., et al. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid for 24 months is well tolerated by and reduces body fat mass in healthy, overweight humans. Journal of Nutrition. 135(4): 778-784, 2005. Kaats, G., et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Current Therapeutic Research. 59(6): 379-387, 1998. Kennedy, S., et al. Influence of dietary oil content and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism enzyme activities and gene expression in tissues of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Lipids. 41(5): 423-436, 2006. Moya-Camarena, S. and Belury, M. Species differences in the metabolism and regulation of gene expression by conjugated linoleic acid. Nutrition Reviews. 57(11): 336-340, 1999. Ostrowska, E., et al. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids increase lean tissue and decrease fat deposition in growing pigs. Journal of Nutrition. 129(11): 2037-2042, 1999. Pariza, M. Perspective on the safety and effectiveness of conjugated linoleic acid. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79(6): 1132S-1136S, 2004. Pariza, M., et al. Mechanisms of action of conjugated linoleic acid: evidence and speculation. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 223(1): 8-13, 2000. Park, Y., et al. Evidence that the trans-10,cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid induces body composition changes in mice. Lipids. 34(3): 235-241, 1999. Park, Y., et al. Effect of conjugated linoleic acid on body composition in mice. Lipids. 32(8): 853-858, 1997. Preuss, H. and Anderson, R. Chromium update: examining recent literature 1997-1998. Current Opinion if Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 1(6): 509-512, 1998. Riserus, U., et al. Metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acid in humans: the Swedish experience. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79(6): 1146S-1148S, 2004. Riserus, U., et al. CLA and body weight regulation in humans. Lipids. 38(2): 133-137, 2003. Riserus, U., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of the metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders. 25(8): 1129-1135, 2001. Smedman, A. and Vessby, B. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation in humans--metabolic effects. Lipids. 36(8): 773-781, 2001. Steck, S., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation for twelve weeks increases lean body mass in obese humans. Journal of Nutrition. 137(5): 1188-1193, 2007. Terpstra, A., et al. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids as free fatty acids and triacylglycerols similarly affect body composition and energy balance in mice. Journal of Nutrition. 133(10): 3181-3186, 2003. Terpstra, A., et al. The decrease in body fat in mice fed conjugated linoleic acid is due to increases in energy expenditure and energy loss in the excreta. Journal of Nutrition. 132(5): 940-945, 2002. Thom, E., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat in healthy exercising humans. Journal of International Medical Research. 29(5): 392-396, 2001. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N., et al. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation reduces adipose tissue by apoptosis and develops lipodystrophy in mice. Diabetes. 49(9): 1534-1542, 2000. Wang, Y. and Jones, P. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid and body composition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 79(suppl 6): 1153S-1158S, 2004. West, D., et al. Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on body fat and energy metabolism in the mouse. American Journal of Physiology. 275(3 pt 2): R667-R672, 1998. Yamasaki, M., et al. Dietary effect of conjugated linoleic acid on lipid levels in white adipose tissue of Sprague-Dawley rats. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 63(6): 1104-1106, 1999.