Scientific Studies Which Support Cognitin Memory Support Formula :
Acetyl-L-Carnitine and Alpha-Lipoic Acid: A Possible Anti-aging Combination Aug 2002, Vol. 8, No. 4: 242-245 Balestreri, R., et al. A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction. J Am Geriatric Society. 35(5):425-430, 1987. Bhatti, J., et al. Vinpocetinee effects on cognitive impairments produced by flunitrazepam. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2:325-331, 1987. Bigini, P., et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine shows neuroprotective and neurotrophic activity in primary culture of rat embryo motoneurons. Neurosci Lett. 329:334, 2002 Calvani, M., et al. Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimers disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (USA). 663:483-486, 1993. Coleston, D. M., et al. Possible memory-enhancing properties of vinpocetine. Drug Dev Res. 14:191-193, 1988. De Simone, R., et al. Effect of acetyl-L-carnitine on forebrain cholinergic neurons of developing rats. Int J Dev Neurosci. 9(1):39-46, 1991. DeNoble, V. J. Vinpocetine enhances retrieval of a step-through passive avoidance response in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 26(1):183-186, 1987. DeNoble, V. J., et al. Vinpocetine: nootropic effects on scopolamine-induced and hypoxia-induced retrieval deficits of a step-through passive avoidance response in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior. 24(4):1123-1128, 1986. Farr, S. A., et al. The antioxidants alpha-lipoic acid and N-acetylcysteine reverse memory impairment and brain oxidative stress in aged SAMP8 mice. J Neurochem. 84(5):1173-1183, 2003. Formenti, A., et al. Effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on the survival of adult rat sensory neurons in primary cultures. Int J Dev Neurosci. 10:207-214, 1992. Hagen, T. M., et al. Feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and lipoic acid to old rats significantly improves metabolic function while decreasing oxidative stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99(4):1870-1875, 2002. Liu, J., et al. Memory loss in old rats is associated with brain mitochondrial decay and RNA/DNA oxidation: partial reversal by feeding acetyl-L-carnitine and/or R-alpha -lipoic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99(4):2356-2361, 2002. Liu, J., et al. Comparison of the effects of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on carnitine levels, ambulatory activity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain of old rats. , 2004. Manconi, E., et al. A double-blind clinical trial of vinpocetine in the treatment of cerebral insufficiency of vascular and degenerative origin. Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 40:702-709, 1986. Mayeux R and Sano M. Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease. N Engl J Med 341:1670-9, 1999. McKay Hart, A., et al. Pharmacological enhancement of peripheral nerve regeneration in the rat by systemic acetyl-L-carnitine treatment. Neurosci Lett. 334:181-185, 2002. Miyamoto, M., et al. Antioxidants protect against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in a neuronal cell line. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 250:1132-1140, 1989. Napoleone, P., et al. Age-dependent nerve cell loss in the brain of Sprague-Dawley rats: effect of long term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 10:173-185, 1990. Packer, L., et al. Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Rad Biol Med. 19:227-250, 1995 Passeri M., et al. Acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients. . 1990. Polich J. and Gloria R. Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory. Hum Psychopharmacol 16:409-16, 2001. Postiglione, A., et al. Effect of acute administration of L-acetyl carnitine on cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebral infarct. , 1991 Ramacci, M. T., et al. Effect of long-term treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine on structural changes of ageing rat brain. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 14(9):593-601, 1988. Reed, K. W., et al. Acetylcarnitine and cholinergic receptors. J Pharm Sci. 69:1065-1068, 1980. Salvioli, G. and Neri, M. L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly. , 1994. Santos, M., et al. Synaptosomal response to oxidative stress: effect of vinpocetine. Free Radic Res. 32:57-66, 2000. Stoll, S., et al. The potent free radical scavenger alpha-lipoic acid improves memory in aged mice: putative relationship to NMDA receptor deficits. Pharm Biochem Behav. 46:799-805, 1993. Subhan, Z., et al. Psychopharmacological effects of vinpocetine in normal healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 28(5):567-571, 1985. Taglialatela, G., et al. Neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells stimulated by acetyl-L-carnitine arginine amide. Neurochem Res. 20:1-9, 1995. Valerio, C., et al. The effects of acetyl-L-carnitine on experimental models of learning and memory deficits in the old rat. Funct Neurol. 4:387-390, 1989. Wolz, P., et al. Effect of DL-alpha-lipoic acid on the status of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in various brain regions of aged rats. J Nutr Biochemistry. 13:619-624, 2002.