Calcium 750 mg (Carbonate, Lactate, Phosphate, Sulfate, Citrate)
The highest concentration of calcium is found in milk. Other foods rich in calcium include vegetables such as collard greens, Chinese cabbage, mustard greens, broccoli, bok choy and tofu. Calcium is an essential mineral with a wide range of biological roles. Calcium exists in bone primarily in the form of hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2).
Hydroxyapatite accounts for approximately 40 percent of bone weight. The skeleton has a structural requisite and acts as a storehouse for calcium. Apart from being a major component of bones and teeth, calcium supports normal muscle contraction, nerve health, heart rhythms, blood coagulation, glandular secretion, energy production and immune system function.*
Sufficient daily calcium intake is necessary for maintaining optimal bone density, healthy bones and teeth and has been shown to ease the discomfort of PMS in women. When the body does not get enough calcium per day, it draws calcium from your bones.
The amount of calcium in the blood is regulated by PTH (parathyroid hormone). High levels of calcium in the body correlate with normal cardiovascular health and normal cholesterol levels. In the American Dietetic Association Journal, a study revealed that calcium helped middle-aged women to maintain healthy weight levels.*
Magnesium 200 mg (Oxide, Carbonate)
Foods rich in magnesium include unpolished grains, nuts and green vegetables. Green leafy vegetables are potent sources of magnesium because of their chlorophyll content. Meats, starches, dairy products and refined and processed foods contain low amounts of magnesium. The average daily magnesium intake in the U.S. for males nine years and older is estimated to be about 323 milligrams; for females nine years and older, it is estimated to be around 228 milligrams. Recent research shows that our diets are magnesium deficient.
Magnesium is a component of the mineralized part of bone and supports the normal metabolism of potassium and calcium in adults. It helps maintain normal levels of potassium, phosphorus, calcium, adrenaline and insulin. It also supports the normal transport of calcium inside the cell for utilization. Magnesium promotes the normal functioning of muscle and nervous tissue and the normal synthesis of all proteins, nucleic acids, nucleotides, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, lipids and carbohydrates. Magnesium helps combat oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.
Magnesium supports normal energy release, regulation of the body temperature, nerve function, adaptation to stress and metabolism. Importantly, magnesium also supports the body’s ability to build healthy bones and teeth and develop muscles. It works together with calcium and vitamin D to help keep bones strong. Magnesium, when combined with calcium, helps support the heart muscle, helps maintain a regular heartbeat and helps maintain normal blood pressure.
Manganese 1 mg (Sulfate)
Manganese is a mineral found in large quantities in both plant and animal matter. The most valuable dietary sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables and teas. Manganese is concentrated in the bran of grains, which is often removed during processing.
Only trace amounts of this element can be found in human tissue. Manganese is predominantly stored in the bones, liver, kidney and pancreas. It supports the normal formation of connective tissue, bones, blood-clotting factors and sex hormones. It supports normal fat and carbohydrate metabolism, calcium absorption and blood sugar regulation. Manganese also promotes normal brain and nerve function.
Manganese is a component of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Antioxidants scavenge free radicals that can cause premature aging and oxidative stress to the body. These particles occur naturally in the body but can possibly contribute to the aging process. Antioxidants such as MnSOD can neutralize free radicals.
Some experts estimate that as many as 37 percent of Americans do not get the recommended daily amounts of manganese in their diet. This may be due to the fact that whole grains are a major source of dietary manganese, and many Americans consume refined grains more often than whole grains. Refined grains provide half the amount of manganese as whole grains.
Vitamin B2 4 mg (Riboflavin-5-Phosphate)
Vitamin B2 is found in liver, dairy products, dark green vegetables and some types of seafood. Vitamin B2 serves as a co-enzyme, working with other B vitamins. It promotes healthy red blood cell formation, supports the nervous system, respiration, antibody production and normal human growth. It supports healthy skin, nails, hair growth and promotes the normal regulation of thyroid activity. Vitamin B2 supports the normal process of turning food into energy as a part of the electron transport chain, driving cellular energy on the micro-level. Riboflavin can be useful for pregnant or lactating women, as well as athletes due to their higher caloric needs. Vitamin B2 supports the normal breakdown of fats while promoting the normal activation of B6 and folic acid. Vitamin B2 is water-soluble and cannot be stored by the body except in insignificant amounts. It must be replenished daily.
Under some conditions, vitamin B2 can act as an antioxidant. The riboflavin coenzymes also support the transformation of vitamin B6 and folic acid into their active forms and for the conversion of tryptophan into niacin.
Vitamin C 58 mg (Ascorbic Acid)
The best food sources of vitamin C include all citrus fruits (oranges, grapefruit, lemons and tangerines), strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, peppers and cantaloupe. Vitamin C is a "fragile" vitamin and can be easily destroyed by cooking or exposure of food to oxygen.
Vitamin C promotes a vitamin "sparing" effect, supporting your body’s ability to utilize multiple vitamins and minerals such as thiamin, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, B12, retinaldehyde and alpha-tocopherol and the mineral calcium. It's also a cofactor or supporter in the normal metabolism of folic acid, some amino acids and hormones. Being an effective antioxidant, it also supports iron absorption from the small intestine. Vitamin C supports vitamin E in cell membranes. It supports the normal synthesis of collagen. Vitamin C supports cardiovascular health, normal cholesterol levels and supports a healthy immune system.
Vitamin C has become the world's most popular vitamin. One reason is its ability to support the immune system. The most convincing evidence suggesting the need for vitamin C supplementation is based on the fact that humans are incapable of producing vitamin C in their bodies.
Low intakes of vitamin C are common in the United States. Stress may also account for reduced vitamin C levels in many Americans. Smoking and some drugs may also impair the body's ability to absorb vitamin C. Since it is water-soluble, vitamin C is flushed from the body each day. Since humans don't always eat foods containing an adequate amount of vitamin C, it often is beneficial to take a supplement.
Vitamin D3 1,000 IU (Cholecalciferol)
Regular sunlight exposure is the main way that most humans get their vitamin D. Food sources of vitamin D include vitamin D-fortified milk (100 IU per cup), cod liver oil and fatty fish such as salmon, and small amounts are found in egg yolks and liver.
Vitamin D promotes the absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and supports the production of several proteins involved in calcium absorption and storage. Vitamin D works with calcium to promote strong, hard bones. It supports normal transport of calcium out of the osteoblasts into the extra-cellular fluid and in the kidneys. It also promotes normal calcium and phosphate re-uptake through the renal tubules and intestinal epithelium. It supports normal skin cell growth and promotes normal producing of insulin by the pancreas.
Boron 1 mg (Sodium Borate)
Boron is a mineral found at high levels in plant foods such as dried fruits, nuts, dark green, leafy vegetables, applesauce, grape juice and cooked dried beans and peas. Boron is found in most tissues, but mainly in the bone, spleen and thyroid. Boron supports normal bone and hormone metabolism. Boron supports the body’s ability to build and maintain healthy bones. It also helps retain adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium to promote proper bone mineralization. Boron is an essential cofactor for the converting vitamin D to its active form. It enhances the maintenance of healthy cell membranes, proper mental functioning and alertness, and supports normal serum estrogen levels and ionized calcium.
Potassium 220 mg (Bicarbonate, Citrate)
Potassium is an electrolyte stored in the muscles. Foods rich in potassium include bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, avocado, raw spinach, cabbage and celery. Potassium is an essential macromineral that helps maintain fluid balance in the body. It also plays a role in a wide variety of biochemical and physiological processes. Among other things, potassium supports the normal transmission of nerve impulses, contraction of cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle, production of energy, synthesis of nucleic acids, maintenance of intracellular tonicity and maintenance of normal blood pressure.
In 1928, it was first suggested that high potassium intake could help maintain cardiovascular health. Potassium supports normal muscle relaxation and insulin release. It also promotes glycogen and protein synthesis. Potassium is an electrolyte that promotes normal heartbeat. Potassium is important in releasing energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates during metabolism. Potassium supports the body’s ability to regulate water balance, recover from exercise and eliminate wastes.
Some symptoms of potassium deficiency include poor circulation, swelling, sleep difficulty, intestinal discomfort, muscle weakness and water retention. Sodium and potassium are two of the most important ions in maintaining the homeostatic equilibrium of the body fluids.