Vitamin A: 2,500 IU (Beta-Carotene/Vitamin A pre-cursor)
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Sources of vitamin A include organ meats (such as liver and kidney), egg yolks, butter, carrot juice, squash, sweet potatoes, spinach, peaches, fortified dairy products and cod liver oil. Vitamin A is also part of a family of compounds including retinol, retinal and beta-carotene. Beta-carotene, also known as pro-vitamin A, can be converted into vitamin A when additional levels are required. All the body’s tissues for general growth and repair need Vitamin A. Vitamin A helps to promote healthy night vision, support normal bone growth and support an antioxidant defense and a healthy immune system.*
Vitamin C: 75 mg (Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin C is found in peppers (sweet, green, red, hot red and green chili), citrus fruits and brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, collards, mustard greens, broccoli, spinach, guava, kiwi fruit, currants and strawberries. Nuts and grains contain small amounts of vitamin C. It is important to note that cooking destroys vitamin C activity.*
Vitamin C is integral in supporting a healthy immune system, promoting cardiovascular health, maintaining healthy cholesterol levels and providing an antioxidant defense. The body does not manufacture vitamin C on its own, nor does it store it. Therefore, vitamin C must be acquired through diet and supplementation.*
Vitamin E 33 IU (d-alpha-Tocopherol Succinate)
The most valuable sources of dietary vitamin E include vegetable oils, margarine, nuts, seeds, avocados and wheat germ. Safflower oil contains large amounts of vitamin E (about two thirds of the RDA in ¼ cup), and there are trace amounts in corn oil and soybean oil. Vitamin E is actually a family of related compounds called tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E is available in a natural or synthetic form. In most cases, the natural and synthetic forms are identical, except the natural form of vitamin E is better absorbed and retained in the body. The natural form of alpha-tocopherol is known as "d-alpha tocopherol." (The natural form is found in Isotonix MultiTech.) The synthetic "dl-" form is the most common form found in dietary supplements. For those individuals watching their dietary fat consumption, which is relatively common in the world of dieting, vitamin E intake is likely to be low, due to a reduced intake of foods with high fat content.*
The main health benefit of supplemental vitamin E comes from its immune-boosting antioxidant activity. It is also helpful in the healing of wounds and is known to provide protection for the cardiovascular system. Vitamin E is one of the most powerful fat-soluble antioxidants in the body. In turn, vitamin E protects cell membranes from free radical damage.*
Lutein (7mg) and Zeaxanthin (1.4mg)
Lutein and Zeaxanthin are carotenoids found together in many fresh fruits and vegetables. Within the eye, they are found as pigments in the macula and retina. Lutein and Zeaxanthin act as antioxidants to protect the eye from free radical damage. They help to build macular pigment density, a critical factor in the health of the macula and retina in relation to the clarity of the lens. They also act as filters of blue-light to protect the photoreceptor cells of the retina from light damage. Blue-light wave lengths can generate free radical damage.
Bilberry Extract (50 mg)
Bilberry extract is derived from the leaves and berry-like fruit of a common European shrub closely related to the blueberry. Extracts of the ripe berry are known to contain flavonoid pigments known as anthocyanins. They act as powerful antioxidants. Scientific studies confirm a positive effect on vision and vein issues. Bilberry supports night vision and eases eyestrain while nourishing eye tissue, and supporting healthy circulation in the eye. Many of the bioflavanoids in bilberry have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, strengthening the structural integrity of blood vessels and promoting healthy circulation to small capillaries that deliver oxygen and nutrients to the eyes. Bilberry extract strengthens capillaries and helps reduce bruising while promoting the healing of wounds.
Eyebright 10mg ( Euphrasia officinalis )
Eyebright is an annual plant with deeply-cut leaves and small, white or purple flowers variegated with yellow, native to Great Britain. There are over 20 species of eyebright that extend over Europe, Northern and Western Asia, and North America. The medicinal portion of eyebright comes from fluid extracted just above the root only when the plant is in bloom.
Eyebright is used for the inflammation of the eyelids, sties and eye fatigue. Eyebright has been used by herbalist since the 16th century for problems of the eyes.
Chromium 100 mcg (Nicotinate)
Chromium is found naturally in some cereals, meats, poultry, brewer’s yeast, broccoli, prunes mushrooms, fish and beer. Chromium is an essential trace mineral that plays an important role in glucose metabolism, regulation of insulin levels, and the maintenance of healthy blood levels of cholesterol and other fats. Chromium combines to form something in the body called glucose tolerance factor, or GTF, which has an impact on the actions of insulin in regulating blood sugar levels, which may make it helpful for those who are diabetic. It is claimed that chromium helps to lower blood sugar, cholesterol and triglycerides as it increases insulin sensitivity. Chromium has been shown to help reduce overall body fat, control hunger and suppress appetite. Many people in the weight-loss industry view chromium as an integral mineral in weight maintenance. Chromium may also contribute to an increase in lean body and muscle mass.*
Copper 100 mcg (Gluconate)
The richest sources of dietary copper derive from organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, wheat bran cereal, whole grain products and cocoa products. Copper may have some antioxidant properties and acts as a component of enzymes in iron metabolism. It is an essential trace mineral. Copper is needed in normal infant development, iron transport, bone strength, cholesterol metabolism, myocardial contractility, glucose metabolism, brain development and immune function.*
Zinc 7 mg (Lactate)
Zinc is largely found in fortified cereals, red meats, eggs, poultry and certain seafood, including oysters. It is a component of multiple enzymes and proteins. It is also involved in the regulation of gene expression. Zinc is an essential trace mineral that has functions in approximately 300 different enzyme reactions. Thus, zinc plays a part in almost all biochemical pathways and physiological processes. More than 90 percent of the body’s zinc is stored in the bones and muscles, but zinc is also found in virtually all body tissues. It has been claimed that zinc plays a role in wound healing, immune system support, promoting a healthy prostate gland and supports healthy sperm quality. Because zinc is involved in such a great number of enzymatic processes, it has been found to positively affect a large range of functions, including digestion, energy production, growth, cellular repair, collagen synthesis, bone strength, cognitive function and carbohydrate metabolism.*
Quercetin (25 mg)
Quercetin is a bioflavonoid that is an excellent antioxidant working synergistically with vitamin C to strengthen the walls of the intricate blood vessels in the eye. It also helps to maintain lens transparency. Quercetin has been shown to inhibit the enzyme, aldose reductase. Aldose reductase has been known to contribute to poor eye health.
L-Taurine (42 mg)
L-Taurine is a building block for all the other amino acids. It aids in the transport of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in and out of cells, thus helping to generate nerve impulses. It is a non-protein amino acid and is found in high amounts in the brain, retina, myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle, platelets and neutrophils. It is plentiful in the fluids of muscle, lungs and nerve tissue. Dietary taurine mainly comes from animal food sources. Taurine is also present, in lower levels, in plant food sources like seaweed. It is classified as an essential amino acid and aids micelle formation and fat absorption. Further, it promotes alertness, mental energy and focus. Taurine also has antioxidant and membrane-stabilizing activities. It may also help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system while also delivering detoxifying activities. It helps protect the eyes from the harmful effects of UV light and stabilizes the membranes in the cones cells of the eye. It also supports healthy cholesterol and blood pressure levels. It may also help maintain a healthy cardiovascular system while also delivering detoxifying activities.*
Lycopene (2 mg)
Fruits and vegetables, such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit and watermelon receive their red pigmentation from a carotene called Lycopene. Lycopene is one of the carotenes and a member of the carotenoid family. Lycopene offers a wide range of benefits in helping maintain healthy cardiovascular health, prostate health and powerful antioxidant. More recent research suggests that lycopene, like beta-carotene, may play an important role in keeping vision healthy by preventing cataracts and Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD).