Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol): 5000 IU
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in some foods and endogenously produced when sunlight strikes the skin and activates vitamin D synthesis. Vitamin D promotes the efficient intestinal absorption of calcium, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum by supporting the synthesis of calcium-binding proteins to promote normal calcium absorption and retention. Vitamin D also promotes the normal formation of bone and normal bone growth and bone remodeling by osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Vitamin D deficiency can be caused by factors such as lack of exposure to sunlight, reduced skin synthesis of vitamin D, lower dietary intake, impaired intestinal absorption and reduced metabolism to active forms of vitamin D by the kidneys, all of which increase with aging. Deficiency has been linked to numerous health concerns, and insufficient levels of this vitamin are associated with weak bones and muscle weakness. In addition to promoting strong bones, vitamin D also has other roles in health, including supporting the bodys normal modulation of neuromuscular function and immune function. Vitamin D has been shown to support immune-modulation, and it is thought that supplementation promotes immune health by promoting the bodys normal regulation of T-cell function. In reference to cellular health, vitamin D supports the modulation of many genes that are responsible for encoding proteins that regulate normal cell cycle activity. Vitamin D levels have been strongly correlated to healthy cells. Lastly, through its interaction with VDR (vitamin D receptor), vitamin D supports the healthy expression of the gene encoding renin, thus helping to maintain healthy blood pressure.*
Vitamin K2: 45 mcg
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin found meat, eggs, dairy and natto. Although a fat-soluble vitamin, the body stores very little K2, and its stores are rapidly depleted without regular dietary intake. Natural vitamin K2, also known as menaquinone-7 (MK-7), is the most bioavailable form of K2 and has the longest half-life in the blood of any form of vitamin K. The Japanese soy food natto is particularly rich in menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Studies of natto consumption in Japan have linked menaquinone-7 to bone and cardiovascular health. The correlation of vitamin K to cardiovascular and bone health directly focuses on supporting proper calcium utilization, whereby adequate metabolism of calcium supports arterial and bone health. This is often referred to as the calcium paradox.
The calcium paradox is explained simply as getting calcium in the right place (i.e., into the bone structures instead of the arterial vessel walls). These events are dependent upon the synthesis of the vitamin K-dependent proteins osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein in a process called carboxylation. The carboxylation of these proteins is a post-translational step; that is, osteocalcin and matrix Gla protein are translated from their respective messenger RNA and then modified by enzymes to the active forms. These carboxylated forms support the healthy binding and releasing of calcium. This reaction is essential for optimal and healthy utilization of calcium. Vitamin K2 promotes the synthesis of proteins involved with calcium utilization, thereby supporting bone retention and arterial health. While vitamin D supports the healthy regulation and synthesis of osteocalcin, the mineral-binding capacity of this protein requires vitamin K-dependent carboxylation and is thought to be related to bone mineralization. Gas6 is a vitamin K-dependent protein found throughout the nervous system, as well in the heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys and cartilage. Although the exact mechanism of its action has not been determined, Gas6 appears to be a cellular growth regulator involved in cellular activities such as cell adhesion, cell proliferation and protection against apoptosis.*